Musical Training will help you use data stethoscopes to make discoveries

Colleagues

Can we make unexpected discoveries using data sonification ?

Our Art-Science Lab at UTD Dallas is currently developing ‘data stethoscopes’ to allow scientists to compare data sets using sonification cues and features to draw attention to differences or peculiarities that they would not notice using visualisation of the data alone ( our data set is fMRI data of healthy adults in collaboration with Prof Gagan Wig). It was therefore with great interest that I came across:

Mangione S, Nieman LZ. Cardiac ausculatory skills of internal medicine and family practice trainees. A comparison of diagnostic proficiency. JAMA. 1997 Sep 3;278(9):717-22.

Mangione, S., Nieman, L.Z. (1999). Pulmonary auscultatory skills during training in internal medicine and family practice. American Journal of Respiratory Critical Care Medicine 159: 1119-1124.

In which Mangione and Nieman (1999; 1997) tested 868 medical students and interns for their ability to learn how to distinguish between and identify correctly stethoscope recordings of twelve different typical heart diseases. Those who could play a musical instrument were statistically significantly more likely to get the diagnoses correct.

We are currently developing ideas for training modules to train scientists to use data stethoscopes and data sonification, and we are interested in any related research going on internationally.

I came across the reference to Mangione and Nieman while reading the draft study that Robert Root Bernstein and Ania Pathak who are carrying out  a review of Studies Demonstrating the Effectiveness of Integrating Arts, Music, Performing, Crafts and Design into Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics and Medical Education. ( being carried out as part of the SEAD study snapshot update report: https://seadnetwork.wordpress.com/ )

I append the abstract of their report and more discussion of the demonstrated usefulness of musical training for doctors using stethoscopes

A Review of Studies Demonstrating the Effectiveness of Integrating Arts, Music, Performing, Crafts and Design into Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics and Medical Education, Part 1: Background

Robert Root-Bernstein* and Ania Pathak, Department of Physiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 USA. * Author to whom correspondence should be addressed: rootbern@msu.edu

NB: DRAFT!!!! 

Abstract: This is Part 1 of a two-part analysis of studies concerning useful ways in which visual and plastic arts, music, performing, crafts, and design (referred to for simplicity as Arts-Crafts-Design or ACD) may improve learning of Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics and Medicine (STEMM) and increase professional success in these subjects. We address: 1) what are the ways in which arts and STEM can interact fruitfully; 2) which of these have been explored using well-devised studies and what do these tell us about efficacy; 3) where are the gaps (and therefore the opportunities) that can readily be addressed by new studies; and 4) what kinds of methods can be used to generate reliable data? Part 1 summarizes studies demonstrating that ACD are valuable to STEMM professionals; provides a taxonomy of the various ways that STEMM professionals employ ACD; and discusses limitations of these studies. Not all STEMM professionals find ACD useful; those who do differ in believing that all knowledge can be unified through “integrated networks of enterprise”; and integrators are very significantly more likely to achieve greater success than those who do not. Moreover, STEMM professionals who use ACD always connect disciplines using specific ways of thinking, skills, materials, models, analogies, structures or processes. These findings make the issue of near and far transfer irrelevant: the question of far transfer between ACD and STEMM subjects reduces to whether specific links between the two can be found that create direct near-transfer bridges. (241 words)

In this draft report  Root Bernstein and Ania Pathak point to this interesting study:

“Aural observing can also be honed, particularly through musical training. Mangione and Nieman (1999; 1997) tested 868 medical students and interns for their ability to learn how to distinguish between and identify correctly stethoscope recordings of twelve different typical heart diseases. Those who could play a musical instrument were statistically significantly more likely to get the diagnoses correct. Given that the average physician is able to correctly diagnose only 19 percent of heart diseases using stethoscopy and even cardiologists get only 23 percent of such diagnoses correct, there is clearly a desperate need to hone aural observation skills among medical professionals! (Zoneraich and Spodick, 1995) Physicians and nurses also use aural observational skills when dealing with surgical and critical care equipment utilizing melodic alarm functions. It has been found that physicians and nurses who had previously played instruments are very significantly better at discriminating between, correctly identifying, and responding to melodic medical equipment alarms used in surgery and critical care settings (Wee and Sanderson, 2008; Sanderson, et al. 2006).

Once again, there appear to be no equivalent types of studies concerning the efficacy of music lessons for training the aural abilities of, for example, field biologists to be able to identify and distinguish the species they study or for mechanical engineers to correctly diagnose and identify the causes of various mechanical failures by sound.”

Mangione S, Nieman LZ. Cardiac auscultatory skills of internal medicine and family practice trainees. A comparison of diagnostic proficiency. JAMA. 1997 Sep 3;278(9):717-22.

Mangione, S., Nieman, L.Z. (1999). Pulmonary auscultatory skills during training in internal medicine and family practice. American Journal of Respiratory Critical Care Medicine 159: 1119-1124.

Root Bernstein and Pathak are scouring the literature for any relevant studies to Demonstrating the Effectiveness of Integrating Arts, Music, Performing, Crafts and Design into Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics and Medical Education. Contact me if you know of any or conducted some.

Scot Gresham Lancaster who is working with Tim Perkis and Andrew Blanton as the artists developing the sonification approaches has been publishing on Creative Disturbance a channel on Sound and Data, with discussions with researchers and artists in the sonification field”

 

http://creativedisturbance.org/channel/sound-data/

Podcsts to date include

Alexey Samoravarsky

Our guest’s interesting website lutheriepostmoderne.com points to her unique work creating new types of instruments for etheric fields or she says on her site “sonification of the dynamic plane: Instruments and systems tuning in to the volatile and unpredictable potentials of matter, from hard substance to the level of electron spin​” So this is a luthier of new sort. See some videos of her work at: https://vimeo.com/alexeysamovarsky

David Worral is a preeminent scholar regarding sonification. His doctoral thesis on the topic is one of the best resources available for anyone researching this area of study. This is an open and informal discussion of various topics related to sonification. David and Scot have known each other for decades so this an engaging and lively discussion.

Dr. Buongiorno Nardelli is a computational materials physicist and composer. His latest work at www.materialssoundmusic.com is a new computer-aided data-driven composition (CADDC) environment based on the sonification and remix of scientific data streams. Sonification of scientific data, i.e. the perceptualization of information through acoustic means, not only provides a useful alternative and complement to visual data representation, but provides also the raw data for potential artistic remixes and further musical interpretation.

Sylvia Roosth

From her perspective as an anthropologist the interest in how non-visual senses (e.g., hearing, taste, and touch) figure in scientific research and knowledge production are discussed. Among these interests sonocytologists who record cellular vibrations, exploring how listening to cells impacts how researchers understand biological processes are discussed.

http://www.fas.harvard.edu/~hsdept/bios/roosth.html

Margaret Schedel is an Associate Professor of Composition and Computer Music at Stony Brook University. Through her work, she explores the relatively new field of Data Sonification, generating new ways to perceive and interact with information through the use of sound. From a longer in depth article at soundstudiesblog.com/2014/10/09/sounds-of-science-the-mystique-of-sonification Dr. Schedel states: “In the current fascination with sonification, the fact that aesthetic decisions must be made in order to translate data into the auditory domain can be obscured. Headlines such as “Here’s What the Higgs Boson Sounds Like” are much sexier than headlines such as “Here is What One Possible Mapping of Some of the Data We Have Collected from a Scientific Measuring Instrument (which itself has inaccuracies) Into Sound.” To illustrate the complexity of these aesthetic decisions, which are always interior to the sonification process, I focus here on how my collaborators and I have been using sound to understand many kinds of scientific data.” We talk at length about these general topics.

http://soundstudiesblog.com/2014/10/09/sounds-of-science-the-mystique-of-sonification/

Sound and Data podcast channel at:

http://creativedisturbance.org/channel/sound-data/

If you are interested in recording a podast with Scot Gresham Lancaster for publication drop me an email at rmalina9at)alum.mit.edu

Roger Malina

 

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